Relationship Between Cancer & Microbiome

What Is Cancer?

Cancer is a disease that develops when body cells grow out of control and can occur in any part of the body. It makes it difficult for your body to perform its healthy metabolic activities.
Cancer can develop in the lungs, chest, colon, rectum, and even in the blood. Although the types of cancer are similar in some aspects, the growth and spread patterns differ according to the type.

How Does Cancer Develop?

The cells in our body have certain tasks to perform in their natural course. Healthy cells divide regularly in order to continue their activities. When these cells are worn out or damaged, they die and are replaced by new healthy cells.

In the case of cancer, these cells continue to grow and produce new cells. This causes problems in any part of the body where cancer has started. In addition, this uncontrolled proliferation can spread to other parts of the body.

Causes of Cancer

Cancer is a complex disease, therefore, more than one factor is effective in the progression of the disease. Many factors, such as lifestyle habits, genetic factors, carcinogens, environmental factors, and dietary habits, can possibly lead to cancer.

In addition to all these, recent studies have demonstrated that intestinal bacteria may have an effect on cancer. How? Let’s find out!

Relationship Between the Microbiome and Cancer

Colon cancer and rectal cancer are known as colorectal cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of death due to cancer. There were 1.8 million new cases and 881,000 deaths worldwide due to colorectal cancer in 2018. It is known that eating habits, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and environmental factors play an important role in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer.

The microbiome is an emerging but important area of study for understanding the impact of environmental factors on colorectal cancer.

Recent studies have revealed the correlation between colorectal cancer and the dysbiotic clinical situation that emerges with an increase in the bad bacteria in the gut microbiota.

It was found that the increase in the number of various types of gut bacteria including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis contributed to the development of colorectal cancer by causing tumor proliferation, promoting inflammation in the body, and causing DNA damage.

On the other hand, the number of probiotics, or good bacteria, such as Lachnospiraceae species, Bifidobacterium animalis, and Streptococcus thermophilus was determined to have decreased in patients with colorectal cancer. It has been argued that an increase in these good bacteria in the gut microbiota has a protective effect against colorectal cancer!

With increasing knowledge on how gut microbiota contributes to colorectal cancer and affects treatment outcomes, modulation of the microbiome, which aims to restore the balance of the microbiome, has become a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer.

The role of the microbiome is quite important in the treatment of cancer, more so than its role in the progression of cancer!

Role of the Microbiome in the Treatment of Cancer

Gut microbiota plays a role in shaping normal and pathological immune responses to cancer treatment. When bad bacteria damage the tight junctions in the gut, the immune system can respond to the bacteria or alter the immune response to the tumors.

At this point, gut bacteria may be a new treatment method that can increase the efficacy or reduce the toxicity of existing chemotherapeutic drugs and increase sensitivity to immunotherapy.

Gut microbiota affects the therapeutic effect of drugs on tumors by regulating the immune system. In addition, some of the intestinal bacteria also display anti-tumor properties in the body.

Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a major complication in the treatment of cancer, and is a life-threatening condition for cancer patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy. One of the main sources of infection during neutropenia is the gut microbiota. According to existing human and animal studies, probiotics reduce the degree of enrichment of pathogenic bacteria colonizing the gut, and may also reduce the duration of neutropenia.

Overall, high bacterial diversity increases the responsiveness of cancer patients to immunotherapy, reduces the side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs, and plays a regulatory role in tumor therapy, including alleviating radiation-induced injuries.

In line with all this information, the main goal of the treatment of the disease should be to develop a treatment method that both supports the treatment of cancer and reduces the toxicity in the body. Therefore, therapeutic interventions targeting gut microbiota and personalized treatments are required for the treatment of cancer.

Nutrition in Rectal Cancer/Colorectal Cancer

In light of all this information, it seems essential to analyze the state of your gut health and learn the nutrients needed by your microbiome to modulate gut health!

All you need to do is open the door to a healthy life with ENBIOSIS!

Don’t wait! Discover your microbiome, manage your diet, and take control of your health!

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